Reconciliation

The needs-based model of reconciliation is a theoretical perspective that aims to shed light on the dynamics between victims and perpetrators following transgressions. Building on the notion that “what goes on between people cannot be separated from what is going on within people,” the model argues that reconciliation can be facilitated through the restoration of the conflicting parties’ positive identities. Research within the model’s framework has applied its insights to various contexts of conflict. These include conflicts between individuals (e.g., siblings or workplace colleagues) and groups (e.g., Germans and Jews), conflicts grounded in structural inequality (e.g., between men and women), and ones that are characterized by mutual transgressions and competitive victimhood (e.g., Israelis and Palestinians).

 

This paper provides an overview of this research –
Shnabel, N. & Nadler, A. (2015). The role of agency and morality in reconciliation processes: The perspective of the needs-based model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 477-483.

 

Here you can read about the (successful) effort to replicate our findings by the Many Labs project (see here for a more detailed report).

Journal articles
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2022

Kahalon, R., Shnabel, N., Sharvit, K., Halabi, S., & Wright, S. (in press). High quality contact with fellow majority students is associated with better academic performance of minority group students. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

Frisch, L. K., Sebben, S., Shnabel, N., & Visintin, E. P. (in press). Support for social change among advantaged groups: The role of identity representations and accepting intergroup contact. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

2021

Hässler, T., Ullrich, J., Sebben, S., Shnabel, N., Bernardino, M., Valdenegro, D., Van Laar, C., Visintin, E. P., Tropp, L. R., González, R. Ditlmann, R. K., Abrams, D., Selvanathan, H. P., Brankovic, M., Wright, S., von Zimmermann, J., Pasek, M., Aydin, A. L., Žeželj, I., Pereira, A., Lantos, N. A., Sainz, M., Glenz, A., Oberpfalzerová, H., Bilewicz, M., Kende, A., Kuzawinska, O., Otten, S., Maloku, E., Noor, M., Gul, P., Pistella, J., Baiocco, R., Jelic, M., Osin, E., Bareket, O., Biruski, D. C., Cook, J., Dawood, M., Droogendyk, L., Loyo, A., H., Kelmendi, K., & Ugarte, L. M. (2021). Needs satisfaction in intergroup contact: A multi-national study of pathways toward social change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

2020

Kende, A., Nyúl, B., Lantos, N. A., Hadarics, M., Petliski, D., Kehl, J., & Shnabel, N. (2020). A needs-based support for #MeToo: Power and morality needs shape women’s and men’s support of the campaign. Frontiers in Psychology.

 

Shnabel, N. (2020). Examining the Round Table Talks from the perspective of the needs-based model of reconciliation: Observations and insights. Social Psychological Bulletin.

Hässler, T., Ullrich, J., Bernardino, M., Shnabel, N., Van Laar, C., Valdenegro, D., Sebben, S., Visintin, E. P., Tropp, L. R., González, R. Ditlmann, R. K., Abrams, D., Selvanathan, H. P., Brankovic, M., Wright, S., von Zimmermann, J., Pasek, M., Aydin, A. L., Žeželj, I., Pereira, A., Lantos, N. A., Sainz, M., Glenz, A., Oberpfalzerová, H., Bilewicz, M., Kende, A., Kuzawinska, O., Otten, S., Maloku, E., Noor, M., Gul, P., Pistella, J., Baiocco, R., Jelic, M., Osin, E., Bareket, O., Biruski, D. C., Cook, J., Dawood, M., Droogendyk, L., Loyo, A., H., Kelmendi, K., & Ugarte, L. M. (2020). A large-scale test of the link between intergroup contact and support for social change. Nature Human Behaviour, 4, 380-386. 

2019

Hässler, T., Shnabel, N., Ullrich, J., Arditti-Vogel, A. & SimanTov-Nachlieli, I. (2019). Individual differences in system justification predict power and morality-related needs in advantaged and disadvantaged groups in response to group disparity. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 22, 746-766. 

Shnabel, N., & Becker, J. (2019). Advantaged- and disadvantaged-group members have motivations similar to those of defenders and attackers, but their psychological characteristics are fundamentally different. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 42. 

Kahalon, R., Shnabel, N., Halabi, S., & SimanTov-Nachlieli, I. (2019). Power matters: The role of power and morality needs in competitive victimhood among advantaged and disadvantaged groups. British Journal of Social Psychology, 58, 452-472. 

 

Aydin, A., Ullrich, J., Locke, K., Siem, B., & Shnabel, N. (2019). The effect of social class on agentic and communal interaction goals: Reconciling identity-based and rank-based perspectives. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10, 735-745. 

Aydin, A.L., Ullrich, J., Siem, B., Locke, K.D., & Shnabel, N. (2019). Agentic and communal interaction goals in conflictual intergroup relations. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 7. 

2018

Shnabel, N. (2018). Addressing the psychological needs of conflicting parties as a key to promoting reconciliation: The perspective of the Needs-based Model. Journal of Self-Regulation and Regulation, 4, 74-87.

Shnabel, N., Belhassen, Y., & Mor, S. (2018). From victimhood to peace activism: The potential role of personal loss and inclusive victim beliefs. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 21, 1144-1154.

SimanTov-Nachlieli, I., Shnabel, N., Aydin, A. L., &  Ullrich, J. (2018). Agents of pro-sociality: Affirming conflicting groups’ agency promotes mutual pro-social tendencies. Political Psychology, 39, 445-463.  

Barth, M. Siem, B., Aydin, A. L., Ullrich, J., &Shnabel, N. (2018). Wie kann Versöhnung gefördert werden? – Das Bedürfnisbasierte Modell der Versöhnung. Friedenspsychologie.

2017

SimanTov-Nachlieli, I., Shnabel, N. & Mori, A. (2017). Agents of reconciliation: Agency affirmation promotes constructive tendencies following transgressions in low-commitment relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43, 218-232. 

Shnabel, N.& Ullrich, J. (2017). Wie versöhnen wir uns? Das Bedürfnisbasierte Modell. Wissenschaft und Frieden, 3, 34-38.

2016

Shnabel, N., Dovidio, J.F., & Levin, Z. (2016). But it’s my right! Framing effects on the support for empowering policies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 63, 36-49. 

Shnabel, N., & Ullrich, J. (2016). Putting emotion regulation in context: The (missing) role of power relations, intergroup trust, and groups’ need for positive identities in reconciliation processes. Psychological Inquiry, 27, 124-132. 

Shnabel, N., SimanTov-Nachlieli, I., & Halabi, S. (2016). The power to be moral: Affirming Israelis and Palestinians’ agency promotes mutual pro-social tendencies across group boundaries. Journal of Social Issues, 72, 566-583. 

Adelman, L., Leidner, B., Ünal, H., Nahhas, E. & Shnabel, N. (2016). A whole other story: Inclusive victimhood narratives reduce competitive victimhood and intergroup hostility. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42, 1416-1430. 

2015

SimanTov-Nachlieli, I., Shnabel, N., & Halabi, S. (2015). Winning the victim status can open conflicting groups to reconciliation: Evidence from the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 139-145. 

Shnabel, N., Halabi, S., & SimanTov-Nachlieli, I. (2015). Group apology under unstable status relations: Perceptions of insincerity hinder reconciliation and forgiveness. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 18, 716-725. 

Harth, N.S, & Shnabel, N. (2015). Third-Party intervention in intergroup reconciliation: The role of neutrality and common identity with the other conflict party. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 18, 676-695. 

Noor, M., Shnabel, N., Halabi, S., & Doosje, B. (2015). Peace vision and its socio-emotional antecedents: The role of forgiveness, trust and inclusive victim perceptions. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 18, 644-654. 

Nadler, A., & Shnabel, N. (2015). Intergroup reconciliation: Instrumental and socio-emotional processes and the need based model. European Review of Social Psychology, 26, 93-125. 

Shnabel, N. & Nadler, A. (2015). The role of agency and morality in reconciliation processes: The perspective of the needs-based model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24, 477-483. 

2014

SimanTov-Nachlieli, I., & Shnabel, N. (2014). Feeling both victim and perpetrator: Investigating duality within the needs-based model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 301-314. 

Shnabel, N., Nadler, A. & Dovidio, J.F. (2014). Beyond need satisfaction: Empowering and accepting messages from third parties ineffectively restore trust and consequent reconciliation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 126-140. 

2013

SimanTov- Nachlieli, I., Shnabel, N., & Nadler, A. (2013). Individuals’ and groups’ motivation to restore their impaired identity dimensions following conflicts: Evidence and implications. Social Psychology, 44, 129-137. 

Shnabel, N., Halabi, S. & Noor, M. (2013). Overcoming competitive victimhood and facilitating forgiveness through re-categorization into a common victim or perpetrator identity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 867-877. 

Shnabel, N., Ullrich, J., Nadler, A., Dovidio, J.F., & Aydin, A. L. (2013). Warm or competent? Improving intergroup relations by addressing threatened identities of advantaged and disadvantaged groups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 482-492. 

Shnabel, N. & Ullrich, J. (2013). Increasing intergroup cooperation toward social change through the restoration of advantaged and disadvantaged groups’ positive identities. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 1, 216–238. 

2012 and earlier

Noor, M., Shnabel, N., Halabi, S., & Nadler, A. (2012). When suffering begets suffering: The psychology of competitive victimhood between adversarial groups in violent conflicts. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16, 351-374.

Shnabel, N., Nadler, A., Ullrich, J. Dovidio, J.F., & Carmi, D. (2009). Promoting reconciliation through the satisfaction of the emotional needs of victimized and perpetrating group members: The Needs-Based Model of Reconciliation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1021-1030. 

Dovidio, J.F., Saguy, T., Shnabel, N. (2009). Cooperation and conflict within groups: Bridging intragroup and intergroup processes. Journal of Social Issues, 65, 429-449. 

Shnabel, N., Nadler, A., Canetti-Nisim, D., & Ullrich, J. (2008). The role of acceptance and empowerment from the perspective of the Needs-Based Model. Social Issues and Policy Review, 2, 159-186. 

Shnabel, N. & Nadler, A. (2008). A needs-based model of reconciliation: Satisfying the differential emotional needs of victim and perpetrator as a key to promoting reconciliation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 116-132. 

 

Shnabel, N., Kahalon, R., Ullrich, J., & Aydin, A.L. (2020). When two groups hurt each other: Understanding and reducing the negative consequences of collective victimhood in dual conflicts. In J. R. Vollhardt (Ed.), The Social Psychology of Collective Victimhood (399-418). Oxford University Press.

SimanTov-Nachlieli, I., & Shnabel, N. (2018). Promoting helping behaviour across group boundaries through the restoration of the agentic identities of conflicting groups. In E. van Leeuwen & H., Zagefka (Eds.), Intergroup Helping: The positive side of intergroup behaviour. (pp. 287-304). Springer

Shnabel, N. (2018). A social-psychological perspective on the proximate causation of conciliatory behavior: The needs-based model of reconciliation. In P. Verbeek & B. A., Peter (Eds.), Behaviorial Processes and Systems of Peace (pp. 17-34). John Wiley & Sons.

SimanTov-Nachlieli, I., & Shnabel, N. (2016). Addressing Israelis and Palestinians basic needs for agency and positive moral identity facilitates mutual prosocial tendencies. In K. Sharvit & E. Halperin (Eds.), The Israeli-Palestinian conflict: A social psychology perspective – Celebrating the legacy of Daniel Bar-Tal (pp. 253-262). Springer.

Shnabel, N. & Dovidio, J.F. (2015). Mixed emotional needs of Israeli-Jews as a potential source of ambivalence in their response to the Iranian challenge. In C. A. Small (Ed.), The Yale Papers: Antisemitism in Comparative Perspective (pp. 337-346). New York: Institute for the Study of Global Antisemitism and Policy.

Shnabel, N., & Noor, M. (2012). Competitive victimhood among Jewish and Palestinian Israelis reflects differential threats to their identities: The perspective of the Needs-Based Model. In: K.J. Jonas & T. Morton (Eds.), Restoring Civil Societies: The Psychology of Intervention and Engagement following Crisis (pp. 192-207). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Nadler, A., & Shnabel, N. (2011). Promoting intergroup reconciliation in conflicts involving direct and structural violence: Implications of the Needs-Based Model. In: L.R. Tropp & R. Mallett (Eds.), Moving Beyond Prejudice Reduction: Pathways to Positive Intergroup Relations (pp. 201-219). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S., Shnabel, N., Saguy, T., & Johnson, J (2010). Recategorization and prosocial behavior: Common Ingroup Identity and a Dual Identity. In S. Stürmer & M. Snyder (Eds.), The Psychology of Prosocial Behavior: Group Processes, Intergroup Relations, and Helping (pp. 191-207).  Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Shnabel, N., & Nadler, A. (2010). A Needs-Based Model of Reconciliation: Perpetrators need acceptance and victims need empowerment to reconcile. In: Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.). Prosocial Motives, Emotions, and Behavior: The Better Angels of Our Nature (pp. 409-429). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Nadler, A. & Shnabel, N. (2008). Instrumental and socio-emotional paths to Intergroup reconciliation: and the need based model of socio-emotional reconciliation. In: A. Nadler, T. Malloy & J.D. Fisher (Eds.), Social Psychology of Intergroup Reconciliation (pp. 37-56). New York: Oxford University Press.

Book chapters
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